sábado, 4 de maio de 2013


Mais um distintivo que tenho em colecção, e que hoje partilho convosco, desta vez um Distintivo Eslovaco.

Após a Invasão da Tchecoslováquia, em 1938, pelas tropas alemãs, o País foi dividido em dois, a República Tcheca, e a Eslováquia, tornando-se esta última, e muito naturalmente, um País satélite do III Reich.
O seu chefe, e aliado dos alemães, era o Dr Josef Tizo, um padre católico, e dirigente do Partido do Povo.
Preso em Abril de 1945, pelos soviéticos, e apesar de admirado pelos Eslovacos, foi condenado à pena de morte .Foi enforcado, em Bratislava, em 18 de Abril, de 1947, com as suas vestes de Padre Católico.

                                                                JOSEF TIZO

                                                 VIDEO/ BIOGRAFIA DE JOSEF TIZO

                                                            HITLER E TIZO


De realçar que a Eslováquia, foi o único aliado da Alemanha, que participou na Campanha da Polónia.
Passo a descrever um texto em Inglês, (Jason Pipes)sobre a História da Eslováquia na 2ªGM:
«Slovakia was the only Axis-Allied Nation to take part in the Campaign against Poland. With the impending German invasion of Poland slated for September of 1939, OHW requested the assitance of Slovakia. Although the Slovakian military was only six months old, it formed a small mobile combat group consisting of a number of infantry and artillery battalions. Two combat groups were created for the Campaign in Poland for use along side the Germans. The first group was a brigade sized formation that consisted of six infantry battalions, two artillery battalions, and a company of combat engineers, all commanded by Anton Pulanich. The second group was a mobile formation that consisted of two battalions of combined cavalry and motorcycle recon troops along with nine motorized artillery batteries, all commanded by Gustav Malar. The two groups were organized around the HQ of the 1st and 3rd Slovakian Infantry Divisions. The two combat groups saw fighting while pushing through the Nowy Sacz and Dukeilska Mountain Passes, advancing towards Debica and Tarnow in the region of southern Poland.»
«Four days after the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Slovakia sent its own units forward against the Russian lines in the form of the Slovakian Expeditionary Army Group. The Slovak Army Group was commanded by the Slovak Minister of Defense, Ferdinand Catlos.

As the Campaign in the East drew on, the Slovak forces began to fall behind the massive German sweep across the Soviet Union. This was mainly because of a general lack of mobile forces able to transport the 45,000 stong Slovak Army Group along side the German advance»
Brigade PilfousekAs a result of the inability of the Slovak Army Group to keep up with the German advance, it was decided to create a mobile unit that would be capable of doing so. This was done by forming all the mototized units of the former Slovak Army Group into a single formation termed the Slovak Mobile Command, otherwise known as Brigade Pilfousek, commanded by the former commander of the 2nd Slovak Division, Rudolf Pilfousek.

Brigade Pilfousek consisted of the I/6 Mot.Inf.Bn., I/11 Mot.Art.Bn., the 1st Tank Bn. with the 1st and 2nd Tank Co. and the 1st and 2nd Anti-Tank Co., 2nd Recon.Bn., 1st Weapons Co., 2nd Motorcycle Co., and the I/3/I Mot.Eng. Platoon.

Brigade Pilfousek advanced through Lvov and towards Vinnitsa. Around July 8th, 1941, the Brigade had advanced beyond the tactical control of the Slovak command, so control of the unit was handed over to the German 17.Armee. It was at this time that the remaining forces of the former Slovak Army Group (no longer an independent formation), were used behind the German lines in conjunction with the 103rd Rear Area Command of Army Group South in security duties and helping to eliminate pockets of Soviet resistance. By July 22nd, the Brigade, now under German control, had advanced to Vinnitsa and had pushed on towards Lipovets. The Brigade experianced heavy fighting against the Soviets during this time. Next, the Brigade moved north through Berdichev, Zhitomir, and on towards the region of Kiev.
The 1st Slovak (Mobile) Infantry Division
In the begining of August, 1941, the Slovak Army Group was pulled out of the lines when it was decided to form two new units that would be better suited to the actions they would be taking part in. The best units of the former Slovak Army Group were now organized into two new divisions, the 1st Slovak (Mobile) Infantry Division and the 2nd Slovak (Security) Infantry Division. The 1st Slovak (Mobile) Infantry Division was also known as the Slovak Fast Division.

The Slovak Fast Division was originally commanded by Gustav Malar, one of the original commanders from the Slovak advance into Poland back in 1939. By the middle of September, 1941, the 1st Slovak (Mobile) Division was back in the front lines, this time near Kiev. After the fighting near Kiev ended with its final capture, the Slovak Mobile Division was transfered to the reserves of Army Group South. Here the unit moved along the Dnieper River, through Gorodishche, Kremenchug, and Magdalinowka, where heavy fighting took place. As of October 2nd, the Mobile Division was a part of the 1.Panzer-Armee fighting on the eastern side of Dnieper River near the region of Golubowka and Pereshchino. The Mobile Division was then moved on to the areas of Maripol and Taganrog, after which it spend the Winter of 1941-42 along positions on the Mius River. Later, the Mobile Division took part in the German advance into the Caucasus Region where it played a vital role in the assault and capture of the vital Soviet city of Rostov. Late in the Summer of 1942, the Divisional commander became Jozef Turanec. He led the Mobile Division across the Kuban River all the way to the region of Taupze. In late 1942, the 31st Artillery Regiment from the 2nd (Security) Infantry Division was transfered to the 1st Mobile Division. Command of the Mobile Division changed again in January, 1943, when Lt.Gen Jurech took over command.

After the horrible loss at Stalingrad in the Winter of 1942/1943, the entire position of the Germans in the Caucasus region was altered, as now any futher advance south would only insure the complete loss of all forces south of the Mius River if and when the Soviets reached Rostov in the North, thus trapping them. As direct result of the losses in the north, the forces in the Caucasus region were quickly pulled back north to escape possible entrapment. The 1st Slovak (Mobile) Infantry Division, as a part of the German forces fighting in the Caucasus region, was pulled back. The Mobile Division was nearly encircled and trapped near Saratowskaya, but managed to escape. The remaining portions of the Mobile Division were then airlifted out of the Kuban, but in so doing were forced to leave behind all their heavy equipment and weapons. The Mobile Division was then used to help cover the retreat of over the Sivash and Perkop land bridges. From here, the Divisions history becomes unsure for the next few weeks, as a specific record of its operations could not be located for this section. What is known though is that it later ended up being commanded once again by a new commanding officer, Elmir Lendvay. It looks as if the Division was pulled from the lines for a short while, until it was again thrown into action, this time near the area of Melitopol. Soon after, the Division was caught by a massive Soviet suprise attack that had managed to break through the German lines. The Mobile Division was routed and over 2000 men were taken by the Soviets. The Mobile Division, routed and destroyed, was then pulled from the lines.

A hollow shell of the former Mobile Division was created in the early part of 1944. It consisted of II/20 Inf.Reg., III/20 Inf.Reg., a few 150mm howitzers from the I/11 Art.Bn., some 37mm anti-tank guns, the 9th and 13th light Flak Companies, and the 45 Construction Company. The new formation was dubbed the Tartarko Combat Group, and it containted 12 officers, 13 NCOs, and 775 men. It was sent back to the region of the Crimea for defensive operations, while the remainder of the Mobile Division was used in security operations behind the lines of Army Group South. Finally, in June of 1944, the Division was pulled from the lines a final time and disarmed, being formed into a construction brigade for use in Rumania as a result of its continued unreliability in combat.

The 2nd Slovak (Security) Infantry Division

The 2nd Slovak (Security) Infantry Division was used mainly in security and anti-partisan operations in the rear areas of the German lines. Originally, the Security Division was used to clean up pockets of Soviet resistance that the Germans had passed up in the advance eastwards. Later, the Slovak Security Division was used in anti-partisan operations in the region of Zhitomer. A number of the Security Divisions units were removed from its ranks and transfered to the 1st Slovak (Mobile) Infantry Division, including the 31st Artillert Regiment. After the defeat at Stalingrad, as the morale of the Slovak troops began to fall, it was moved to the area of Minsk, a much more quiet sector of the front. Soon after, on November 1st, 1943, as a result of continued problems with desertion in the unit, the Security Divsion was heavily disarmed and transfered to Ravenna, Italy to act as a construction brigade.

The 12th Engineer Battalion
As a result of the heavy partisan actions against the German lines in 1943, the Slovak 12th Engineer Battalion was sent to the rear area of Army Group South where it took part in vital rail repair operations to fix lines cut by the Soviet partisans. It was later merged with the 1st Slovak (Mobile) Infantry Division when it was formed into a construction brigade in June of 1944.

Quanto ao distintivo em si, é conhecido no meio anglo saxónico, por "Slovakian Eastern Front Award"
Este distintivo foi instituido em 22 de Abril de 1942, e conferido a todos os participantes na Guerra da Frente Leste.Existia em dois graus: Grau "Bronze" e em grau "Prata".O modelo presente na foto acima é o modelo em "prata".
Estéticamente considero este distintivo muito bem conseguido.
É composto pelo capacete Eslovaco, com a data 22.VI.1941, data da entrada em Guerra com a URSS.
Visivel ainda a Espada esmagando/destruindo o comunismo, representados pela Estrela Vermelha,e a Foice e o Martelo, simbolos da URSS.
O reverso é concavo e sólido.
O critério de entrega desta condecoração era o seguinte:
Grau Bronze: Conferida  às unidades da rectaguarda
Grau Bronze/Prata: Conferida às unidades de abastecimento
Grau Prata: Conferida aos combatentes da linha da frente (caso do distintivo apresentado)
                                Alguns exemplos onde se pode ver o grau Bronze/Prata
O grau Bronze, conferido às unidades de rectaguarda é raríssimo.